Grew up in an orphanage. Participant in World War II. Arrested in 1942, sentenced to 7 years in the Vorkuta camps. Released, chairman of a kolkhoz, 1953-1959.
Engaged in dissident activity at the end of the 1960s. Arrested for the samizdat manuscript, Edinstvennyi Vykhod Spent three years in a psychiatric hospital. Editor of the samizdat magazine, Poiski.
Emigrated, 1980. Lives in France. Editor of Poiski, Paris.