Head of the Department of Agitation and Propaganda of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 1940-1947. Director of the Institute of Philosophy of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1947-1954. Attacked by Zhdanov for his history of Western philosophy (for acknowledging Marx as a Western philosopher), 1947, but soon recovered his reputation.
Minister of Culture of the USSR, 1954-1955. Member of the Institute of Philosophy in Minsk, 1955-1961.