Became a factory worker. Bolshevik-propagandist, who was active in Russian provincial towns and in the Caucasus (1908) where he met Stalin, his future son-in-law. During 1907-1918 lived and worked in Petersburg, where his fiat was constantly used for secret party meetings.
After the defeat of the attempted Bolshevik uprising in July 1917, sheltered Lenin. An active participant in the October Revolution. Fought as a Red Army officer in the Civil War.
Born October 7, 1866