Officer in the Russian Army Cavalry during World War I. Joined the Polish corps of Dowbor-Musnicki with the Russian Army, 1917, fought the Red Army with this corps (Bobruisk). After Polish independence joined the Polish Army. Cavalry regimental commander during the Soviet-Polish War.
Head of the Polish Olympic horse-riding team (first prize at the international event at Nice. 1925). General, 1934. Cavalry commander in Wolhynia, involved also in cultural work.
In 1939 fought both the German and Soviet invading forces. Wounded, taken prisoner by the Red Army near Lvov. Imprisoned at the Lubianka.
This saved him from the fate of about 15,000 other POW Polish officers, murdered by the NKVD at Katyn’ and other places. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union given the task of creating a Polish army out of Polish POWs in the USSR. Insisted on transferring his force to the Western front, instead of fighting together with the Red Army. Left with his soldiers through Iran.
Took part in military operations in the Middle East and North Africa. The main achievement of his forces was the storming of Monte Cassino in Italy, 1944. After World War II, together with most of his soldiers, remained as a political refugee in the West.
Considered the figurehead of Polish emigres. Lived and died in London. Wrote memoirs and a clear, concise description of World War II on the Eastern front (Hitler's Defeat).