An active revolutionary from 1901, joined the Social Democratic Labour Party Menshevik wing in 1903. During the 1905 Revolution tried to organize military revolts in Poland and Sebastopol. Sentenced to death, commuted to 20 years’ imprisonment.
Escaped from prison and continued revolutionary activity. Emigrated to France, 1910. Returned to Russia after the February Revolution 1917 and supported Trotsky.
Joined the Bolshevik Party. One of the chief organizers of the October coup, personally led the siege of the Winter Palace and arrested the ministers of the Provisional Government. One of the three men in charge of military and naval affairs.
During the Civil War commander of the Red forces fighting the Don Cossacks under Kaledin and the anti-Bolshevik Ukrainians. Head of VTSIK. Head of the Political Administration of the Red Army. In charge of the repression of the peasant revolt in Tambov province, 1921.
Dismissed after the defeat of Trotsky in 1925. Acknowledged Stalin’s supremacy, 1928. Soviet Ambassador to Czechoslovakia, Lithuania, Poland, 192430.
Attorney-General of the RSFSR, 1934. During the Spanish Civil War Soviet General Consul at Barcelona (where most Soviet military shipments arrived), 1936-1937. Recalled to Moscow, arrested 1938, disappeared during the Great Purge.
Moscow dissident historian Roy Medvedev in the Russian edition oi They Surrounded Stalin says that ‘Mikoian at the 20th Congress of Communist Party of the Soviet Union regretted the loss of many outstanding communists, among them Antonov-Ovseenko’.