Became a railway-worker in Petersburg, joined the Bolsheviks, 1904. In 1912 elected to the 4th Duma where he read
Lenin’s speeches sent from abroad. Official publisher of Pravda before World War I. During World War I arrested with other Bolshevik members of the Duma and exiled to Turukhansk,
Returned to Petrograd after the February Revolution 1917. Participated in the October Revolution 1917. In Petrograd appointed commissar for food supplies.
Chairman of Tsentrosoiuz, 1930. Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, 1938-1943, and Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
Born February 4, 1883