Became involved in the human rights movement. Arrested, 1973. Inmate in a mental hospital in Rostov-on-Don, released 1974. Works circulated in samizdat.
Emigrated, 1976, settled in the USA. Edited valuable material in a collection by Solzhenitsyn, INRI, on 20th century Russian history: Narodnoe Soprotivlenie Kommunizmu v Rossii: Nezavisimoe Rabochee Dvizhenie v 1918 Godu: Dokumenty i Materialy, Paris, 1981.