Colonel of the Terek Cossacks, 1917. During World War I, stationed in Iran. During the Civil War in the Caucasus, pretended to accept the authority of the Baku Soviet, while establishing links with the British in Iran and the Whites under Denikin.
In July 1918, let British detachments into Baku, and withdrew to Daghestan. Created a short-lived Caucasian-Caspian White government. Emigrated to Britain, 1919.