Involved in revolutionary activity as a teenager, 1894. After the 1905 Revolution secretary of the Moscow region Bolshevik Party Committee, 19067. Active participant in the Bolshevik take-over in Moscow during the October Revolution 1917.
Head of the military section of the Bolshevik Moscow Committee, 1919-1920. Worked in the Comintern, 1928-1940. From 1940 researcher at the Marxism-Leninism Institute of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.