During World War II, refugee in Germany. Settled in France after the war. Became known as a poet of the Paris Note, the narrow limits of which he soon transcended.
Moved to West Germany, 1953. Worked on the Russian desk of Radio Liberty in Munich, 1955-1962. Moved to the USA, 1962.
Professor of Russian Literature at the universities of Kansas, Pittsburgh, and Vanderbilt. Retired, 1977, lives in Florida. Has become one of the best Russian emigre poets.
His deceptively light, sceptical, modernist and essentially tragic verse has no direct parallel in Russian literature. Though at present he is known only to specialists, his stature seems certain to grow. His verse has been published in small volumes in Paris and New York.