Returned to Russia illegally, legalized his position at the beginning of World War I. Emigrated from the Soviet Union. 1925. Moved to France and lectured at the St. Sergius Theological Institute in Paris. Edited the philosophical magazine Novyi Grad, 1931-1940.
Almost alone of the generation which, starting with radical left-wing views, moved to Orthodoxy, kept a general left-wing approach, which made him popular among like-minded intellectuals. During World War II, after a most adventurous sea voyage, reached the USA with a shipload of refugees from France, 1943. Became professor at the St. Vladimir seminary in New York, 1946.