Businessman before World War I, and later of the NEP period. Arrested, inmate of the Solovki concentration camp, 1927. Became an adviser of the camp administration and soon one of its most important administrators.
Organized the economic side of camp life with the utmost level of exploitation of the prisoners, which was gradually extended to the whole Gulag system. Practically became the economic boss of the Gulag. In his old age, lived as a retired Interior ministry Ltgeneral in Moscow, refusing to see or talk to anyone.
Accorded an official military funeral, cremated in the cemetery of the Donskoi monastery.