Lived with his parents in Western Europe. Brought by his mother to Russia in 1904. Held Soviet diplomatic posts in the 1920s.
Also involved in journalistic work. First Secretary of the Soviet Embassy in Berlin, 1935. Head of the Press Section of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1937-1939.
Arrested, 1939, and sentenced to 10 years in the Gulag camps. In exile in Kazakhstan, 1949. Moved to Moscow, 1955.
Some of his historical studies circulated in samizdat.