Involved in revolutionary activity, 1905. Joined the Bolsheviks, 1906. Took part in the storming of the Winter Palace, October 1917.
Commissar of Cheka detachments on the Eastern front, 1918. Cheka work in Moscow, 1919, and on the WestSouthern front and in the Caucasus, 1920-1930. Transferred to high GPU posts in Moscow, 1930.