Ukrainian. Professor at Lvov University, 1894. Chairman of the Shevchenko Scientific Society, 1897. During the 1890s, active member of the Hromada (Ukrainian Liberal Nationalists).
One of the founders of the Ukrainian National Democratic Party in Galicia, 1899. Moved to Kiev, 1908, and became close to the Cadets. Was in favour of Ukrainian autonomy.
During World War I, took a pro-German stance. Arrested and sent to Simbirsk, 1914. After the February Revolution 1917, SR in the Ukraine, President of the Central Ukrainian Rada.
After the fall of the Rada, emigrated, 1919. In Vienna founded the Ukrainian Sociological Institute, which became one of the main centres of Ukrainian nationalism. Broke with his colleagues and returned to the USSR in 1924.
Moved to Moscow, 1930.