Literary critic and translator of poetry. In the late 1960s, became active in the human rights movement. One of the editors of Khronika Tekushchikh Sobytii, the publication which monitored information on arrests, detentions in psychiatric hospitals, illegal imprisonment and all kinds of harassment.
Closely watched by the Committee for State Security from whom he received violent threats. Forced to leave the USSR, 1973. Settled in Israel. Commited suicide.