During the 1917 Revolution, one of the Menshevik leaders in Moscow. Vice-chairman of the Moscow Soviet, 1917. Secretary of the Moscow Social Democratic Committee (from the Mensheviks).
In the 1920s, taught in institutes of higher education in Moscow. Arrested, 1930. Imprisoned in the Urals until 1933, after that in exile in Tomsk. The place and circumstances of his death are not known.