Served as a civil servant in several ministries including the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the State Chancellery. During 1904-1914 (with one short break), Minister of Finance (under Witte, Goremykin and Stolypin). Prime Minister after Stolypin’s assassination, September 1911 — January 1914 (retaining the Ministry of Finance).
Saw his main aim as maintaining a deficit-free budget. Resigned in January 1914. Held several high posts in banking during World War I. After the October Revolution, emigrated, 1918.
Lived in France.