Lt-colonel during World War I. In June 1918, volunteered for the Red Army. Commander of the 9th Army from December 1918. Consultant to the People’s Commissar of the Estonia Workers’ Commune.
Deputy commander of the 7th Army, February 1919. June 1919-October 1920, commander of the 15th Army defending Petrograd against General ludenich. Commander of the 6th Army against General Baron Wrangel.
1921-1935 occupied senior army positions in the Ukraine, Crimea, Turkestan, the Caucasus, Belorussia, Leningrad and Moscow districts. Director of the Frunze Military Academy, 1935-1937. Arrested in 1937, tried in secret and shot with Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevskii and 7 other senior officers.
Rehabilitated under Khrushchev.