Became an estate manager. Arrested for revolutionary activity, 1902. Participated in the 1905 Revolution leading gangs of rebellious peasants in Moldavia.
Sentenced to 12 years in exile in 1907. Escaped from Nerchinsk, 1913. Again became leader of a guerrilla group in Bessarabia, 1913.
In 1917, close to the left-wing SRs, revolutionary activist in the army. During the Civil War, famous cavalry commander in the Red Army, but joined the Communist Party only in 1920. Fought against Makhno, Antonov and Petliura.
Born June 24, 1881