Took part in the Civil War in the Caucasus fighting with L. Bicherakhov against the Red Army. Emigrated after the defeat of the Whites. Settled in Germany. During World War II, organized one of the first Russian anti-Stalin military groups on the German side.
Later joined General Vlasov as head of his office. Tried (unsuccessfully) to explain the situation of the anti-Stalin Russians in Germany to General Eisenhower, 1946. In the 1950s and 1960s, worked for Radio Liberty in Munich.
Wrote memoirs, Za Zemliu, Za Voliu, published in the USA, 1980.