Member of a Populist group in Saratov, 1892. Joined the Social Democratic Party, 1897. With her husband, Prokopovich (later a minister of the Provisional Government), formed a partnership reminiscent of that of S. and B. Webb in England.
Together they wrote sociological, economic and statistical works. On the initiative of Plekhanov, expelled from the Social Democratic Party, 1898. Criticized by Lenin for ‘economisin’.
Became a leading light in Russian freemason circles. Elected to the Central Committee of the Cadets (but refused to join them), 1905. Disapproved of the Bolshevik take-over, 1917.
Involved in the founding of Pomgol (Help to the Hungry Committee). Expelled from the USSR in 1922. Settled (with her husband) first in Prague, later in Geneva.
Prolific writer in emigre publications. After World War II, put her hopes on the possibility of reforms by Stalin. Actively involved in the forcible repatriation of refugees from Soviet Russia.
Influential in left-wing Russian emigre circles until the end of her life.