At the end of the 19th century, became a close friend and collaborator of Gorkii. Founded first at Geneva (1905), then at Berlin, a publishing house in his name, which printed Gorkii’s works in Russian. Sold the publishing house, 1913 (after the revolution, under new management, it brought out many of the works of post-revolutionary emigre writers in the 1920s).
Member of the editorial board of Vsemirnaia Literatura (founded by Gorkii), 1918-1921. One of the directors of the Soviet booktrade organizations Kniga and Mezhdunarodnaia Kniga, 1921-1930. In his old age, consultant at the Gorkii archive, 1937-1943.