Professor of Russian history at Tartu University, 1905-1916. After the October Revolution 1917, went abroad. Lived in Prague, 1921-1933.
Professor of Kaunas (Kovno) University in Lithuania, 1933-1940. Specialist on the history of Western Russia (Belorussia, Grand Duchy of Lithuania). At the end of World War II, among the Russian refugees in Germany.