In 1900, active in revolutionary circles in Odessa. In 1901-1902, head of the Social Democratic Party in Simferopol’. One of the organizers of the Crimea Union of the RSDRP. Several short arrests.
Exiled to Yakutia, 1902. Escaped abroad. With the Mensheviks in Geneva, 1904. Returned to Russia in 1905.
Social Democratic Party worker in Kiev, 1906-1907. Delegate at the 4th (1906), and 5th (1907), RSDRP Congresses. Secretary of the Union of Oil Industry Workers, 1907-1909.
Wrote on economic and party subjects, 1909-1912. Joined the so-called ‘Liquidators’. During World War I, abroad.
Returned to Russia after the February Revolution 1917. Chief writer and head of the journal International. Member of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet.
Became a member of the Bolshevik Party, August 1917. After the October Revolution 1917, worked in the VSNKH, dealing with financial matters, trade, and the setting up of the sovkhoz system (state farms). Candidate member of the Central Executive Committee.