Joined the Bolsheviks, 1903. Organizer of the sailors’ revolts in Kronstadt and Sveaborg during the 1905 Revolution. Arrested and exiled, but escaped on the way.
Emigrated to France, 1907-1912. On party underground work in Moscow and Petersburg, 1912-1913. Again went to France.
Returned to Russia in May 1917. Joined the Mezhraiontsy, later changed to the Bolsheviks. Took part in the Bolshevik take-over in October 1917.
Soviet Minister of Agriculture in the Ukraine, 1918. Worked in the Comintern from 1922. Secretary of the Comintern Executive Committee, 1928-1943.
From 1944, occupied the post of Foreign Affairs Minister of the Ukraine, representing the Ukraine in the United Nations. Many works on communist international strategy published. Retired after Stalin’s death, 1953.
Born October 3, 1883