Joined the Bolshevik Party, 1916. Member of Tsentrobalt, the Bolshevik sailors’ organization, 1917. Secretary of the People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, 1917-1918.
On Lenin’s orders, published all the secret documents of the Tsarist Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Naval commissar for Special Affairs, June 1918. Deputy commander of the Volga fleet during the Civil War.