Arrested, 1896. After 3 years in prison, expelled to Germany, 1899. Became an active member of the German Social-Democrats. Moved to England, 1906, then to the USA,
After the October Revolution 1917, appointed 1st Soviet represen tative in America, 1919. Not recognized by the US government. Involved in the build-up of a Soviet spy network in the USA. Returned to the USSR. Chairman of the Inventions Committee of the VSNKH, 1924-1926.
Specialist in diesel engines. Editor of the monumental Soviet Technical Encyclopaedia, 1927-1941. Died in Moscow.