An older generation dissident, providing a link between the inmates of Stalin’s camps of the 1930s and the dissidents of the 1960-1970s, suffering from the misuse of psychiatry. First arrested in 1935, and sentenced to 5 years in the labour camps. Sentenced to life exile in Karaganda, 1949.
After Stalin’s death, rehabilitated, 1957. In 1961, arrested for sending a manuscript abroad for publication. Inmate of the Leningrad psychiatric hospital, 1961-1964.
A decade later, was again arrested and put into a psychiatric hospital. Released in 1976.