Railway engineer. Left-wing cadet. Member of the 3rd and 4th Dumas. Prominent member of the Progressive Bloc.
Minister of Transport in the Provisional Government, 1917. In August 1917, member of the ruling triumvirate, with Kerenskii and Tereshchenko. Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Finance, Governorgeneral of Finland, 1917.
After the Bolshevik take-over, worked in Tsentrosoiuz, 1921. Arrested, worked as a Gulag inmate on the building of Stalin’s pet project, the BelomorBaltiiskii canal. According to visiting Soviet writers (Gorkii and others), praised the educational and moral value of labour, and its reforming character.
Probably went insane.