Lecturer at Petersburg University, 1889, professor, 1894. Academician, 1900. Secretary of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1904-1929. Minister of Education in the Provisional Government, July-August 1917.
Member of the Cadet Party. Specialist in Buddhism and Hinduism. Became the link between the pre-revolutionary Academy of Sciences and the communist establishment.
Born September 26, 1863