In Georgia. Member of the SDs, 1903. Took part in the 1905 Revolution. Emigrated to Germany.
Party worker in Baku, 1907. Arrested, sent to Siberia, escaped, 1909. Went to Paris, 1910. Member of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party (elected, 1912, by the Prague Conference).
Arrested in Petersburg, 1912, in Schlusselburg prison, 1912-1915, sent to Iakutia. Released after the February Revolution 1917, returned to Petrograd. Took part in the October Revolution 1917.
During the Civil War, political commissar in the Red Army at different fronts, 1918-1920. In the early 1920s, active in the Caucasus. In the late 1920s, an ally of Stalin in his struggle for power.
Member of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party, 1921, member of the Politburo, 1930. Minister for Heavy Industry, 1930. Led the industrialization drive initiated by Stalin.
According to the official version, died of a heart attack. According to other versions, either committed suicide or was murdered on Stalin’s orders, after he had spoken of his decision to denounce Stalin and his terror campaigns publicly.
Born October 24, 1886