Became involved in the human rights movement. Edited the samizdat magazine Bumerang, 1960. Co-edited the samizdat magazine Feniks, 1961.
Arrested, 1961, sentenced to 7 years in the Gulag camps.
After his release, started the Russian nationalist samizdat magazines Veche and Zemlia. Re-arrested, 1974. Sentenced to 8 years in the camps. The best-known voice of the Russian opposition to communism among Soviet dissidents during the Brezhnev-Andropov years.