Exiled to Narym for revolutionary activity. Returned toMoscow, 1911. Lecturer, also engaged in literary work.
One of the editors of the Literaturnaia Entsiklopedia, 1920-1930. Professor at Moscow University from 1921. Worked mainly on N. Gogol’, F. Dostoevskii and I. Goncharov.
Col lected works appeared 1929-1930. Created Pereverzevskaia Shkola, using a Marxist approach to classical Russian literature. His views and writings were influenced by G. Plekhanov.
In 1931, accused by the Stalinist press of not being Marxist enough in his aesthetics and methodology.