Worked at Moscow Nuclear Power Research Institute, 1950-1957. Lenin Prize, 1967. Corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1974. Worked in Dubna. Had several confrontations with the authorities, who prevented him from meeting his Western colleagues, 1975.
Became active in the human rights movement. In 1978, joined the Moscow Helsinki Group. Left the USSR. 1978. Settled in Switzerland, later moved to West Germany.