Joined the Social Democratic Party, 1902. Took part in the 1905 Revolution. During the Bolshevik take-over, November 1917, party organizer in Pskov, thereafter commissar for the Northern Front.
During the Civil War, commissar of the Petrograd military district, and the Baltic fleet, 1918. After the Civil War, secretary of the Northwestern Bureau of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party, and of the Southeastern Kraikom. Secretary of the Leningrad obkom of the party, 1923-1930.
Non-voting member of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party, 1930.