The leading Soviet economist of the 1920-1930s. Masterminded the Soviet industrialization plan at the expense of rural Russia. In 1927, accused of Trotskyism, fired from the party and sent into exile in Uralsk.
Made the statement that ‘we have used the printing press as a machine-gun to attack bourgeois society in the rear through the monetary system’. In 1929, recognized his mistakes. Returned to Moscow. Arrested, 1937, and shot.