Commander of the Moscow Life Guards regiment in 1916. During the Civil War, with the Whites, became known for cruel repressions. After the failure of General Denikin’s march on Moscow, held the Perekop (Northern entrance to the Crimea) for the Whites against overwhelming odds, enabling the Whites to rally in the Crimea under General Wrangel.
Released from duty by Wrangel in August 1920 (to recover from serious drug addiction). Evacuated to Turkey in 1920. Accepted the Soviet Government’s amnesty, and with a group of officers returned to the Soviet Union in 1921.
Used for propaganda purposes, advising his former military comrades to return (all who followed his advice were liquidated as soon as they crossed the border). Allowed to give tactical training to Red commanders in Moscow, 1921-1929, under the close supervision of the secret police. Shot in Moscow by a person who claimed that a relative had been executed on his orders during the Civil War.
Another version is that the assassin was sent by the secret police, because though sentenced to 5 years, he was soon released.