Her parents sent her to be educated in England. Married a Smith, then a Falkner. Divorced. Returned to Russia.
In 1918, joined the Communist Party. From 1919, served in the Red Army on the Southern front. In 1921, taught at Moscow University, then at the Plekhanov Moscow Institute of People’s Management, and later at the Oil Institute.
Corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1939. Party administrative posts in GOSPLAN and at the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences.