During the Civil War, joined the White Army. Taken prisoner by the Reds, 1919, sent to a concentration camp, and then to the Red Army. Became a Soviet journalist and Tass correspondent, 1925.
Close to M. Prishvin. During World War II, moved to Germany. After the war, in DP camps in Germany.
In the 1950s and 1960s, worked at the Russian desk of Radio Liberty in Munich.