Graduated from the Academy of the
General Staff, 1899. Took part in the Russo-Japanese war, 1904-1905, and World War I as a major-general. During the 1917 Revolution, elected Corps Commander by his soldiers, and joined the Red Army with his corps.
Took part in the Civil War. Soviet military attache in independent Georgia, 1920-1921. Professor at military educational establishments, 1922.