Exiled to Siberia before World War I for revolutionary involvement. Lived in Siberia with Stalin. During the Civil
War, active communist organizer in Southern Russia.
Organized communist partisan groups in the Crimea under the Whites. After the Civil War, joined military intelligence (GRU). Built up Soviet spy networks in Germany, China and the USA. Recalled to Moscow in the late 1930s.
Arrested, 1948, sent to the Gulag. Released, 1956.