Professor at the Institute, 1911-1917. Professor at Saratov University, 1917. Head of the Botanical Institute, 1921-1924.
Director of this Institute, which was reorganized and renamed the Institute of Plant Breeding, Petrograd, 1924-1940. Through numerous expeditions all over the world in the 1920s and 1930s, built up a unique collection of cultivated plants. Gained a world-wide reputation as the foremost authority in his field.
Director of the Institute of Genetics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1930-1940. President of the Soviet Geographical Society, 1931-1940. Fellow of the Royal Society and other foreign scientific bodies.
Opposed Lysenko’s dictatorship in Soviet science and became its victim. Dismissed from all his posts, arrested in August 1940, and sent to the Kolyma concentration camps. After Stalin’s death, rehabilitated.
His name was given to his former institute and a gold medal was created in his name, to be awarded for outstanding success in the development of Soviet agriculture.