Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Science in 1964. Member of staff of the Institute of Atomic Energy from 1958. Head of the Laboratory, 1962-1970.
Deputy director, then director of a branch of the same institute from 1971. Joined the Communist Party in 1971. Professor at Moscow University from 1973.
Leading expert on space weapons. Adviser to the Kremlin. Accompanied Gorbachev on his visit to Britain.
Vicepresident of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Speaks perfect English.