Among the young reformers of the Navy after the defeat in the Russo-Japanese war. During W WI, in the Baltic fleet, head of a submarine division, 1916-1917. Chief-of-staff of the Baltic fleet, April-May 1917, and Commander, Jun.
1917. Fired, and court-martialled, July 1917, for refusing to help the Provisional Government during the Bolshevik revolt. After the defeat of the Kornilov revolt, appointed Naval Minister, Sep. 1917. Requested retirement on the day before the October Revolution, 6 November 1917.
Emigrated after the Bolshevik takeover. Lived in France. Member of masonic lodges. After World War II, changed to a pro-Soviet position, and became a Soviet citizen.