Expelled from the local seminary. Bolshevik from 1904. Before World War I, engaged in underground party work in many Russian towns. After the October Revolution, became the editor of the first communist literary magazine, Krasnaia Nov’, 1921-1927.
Insisted on literary, rather than propagandistic, value in literature. Removed from the editorship (for Trotskyism), 1927. In 1924, founded the literary group Pereval, which was liquidated in the 1930s.