Prominent Menshevik. Arrested
1921, re-arrested, 1922. Imprisoned in Moscow, exiled. Escaped, 1922. Underground party activity in Southern Russia (Khar’kov, Rostov),
Re-arrested, 1923. Exiled to the Solovki concentration camp, and later to Narym, Siberia. Arrested for the last time in 1937, and probably shot the same year.