Senior staff Histadrut Executive, Tel-Aviv, 1953-1957. Assistant professor Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, 1961-1963. Research fellow Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, 1963-1966.
Lecturer to senior lecturer Sheffield University, England, since 1967, chairman department politics, 1985-1986. Consultant, reader in field. Consultant, script-writer British Broadcasting Corporation, since 1978.
Author: The Modern History of Israel, 1975. Contributor articles to professional journals. Nuffield Foundation Social Science Research fellow, 1975-1976.
Oxford Centre for Postgrad. Hebrew Studies fellow, 1975-1976. British Academy Overseas visiting fellow, 1976.
Senior associate member St. Antony's College Fellow British Society Middle Eastern Studies (member council). Member British Association Jewish Studies, British Association American Studies, Academy Council International Center Middle East Peace.