Resident physician Edinburgh City Hospital, 1959-1960. Research fellow medical microbiology Edinburgh University, 1957-1958, lecturer clinical bacteriology, 1962-1966. Professor bacteriology Baroda University, India, 1966-1967.
Medical consultant World Health Organization, Southeast Asia Region, 1966-1967. Reader medical microbiology London University, 1967-1979, professor Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, since 1979. Consultant microbiologist Westminster Hospital, London, since 1967, Charing Cross Hospital, since 1983.
Advisory smallpox British Department Health, 1970-1980. Carnegie Trust fellow, 1960, National Polio Fund fellow, 1961-1962. Recipient Wellcome Trust medal and prize, 1964.
Peel Medical Research award, 1970.