Bachelor of Science, University Allahabad, India, 1946, Master of Education, 1953. Doctor of Philosophy., University Delhi, 1958. Licentiate in Teaching, 1952.
Visiting scholar University London, 1962. Lecturer in education Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi, 1955-1962, professor, 1970-1985. Reader in education University Delhi, 1962-1965, professor, since 1986, dean, 1986-1987.
Deputy director Asian Institute Educational Planning, New Delhi, 1965-1969. Member panel Teacher University Grants Commission, New Delhi, 1976-1982, program advisory committee National Institute Educational Planning and administration, New Delhi, since 1983, National Council Educational Research and Training, 1985-1987. Member Ministry of Education advisory committee on Research on Educational Policy and Planning, since 1986.
Senior fellow Indian Council of Social Science Research, 1979-1982. Visiting professor Kent State University, 1982. Fellow Central Institute Education Government India, 1953-1955.
Named to Gerald H. Read chair in comparative education. Honorary visiting professor Jawaharlal Nehru University Member World Council of Comparative Education (executive committee 1980-1984), International Sociological Association, Indian Sociological Society (life member), Indian Institute Public Administration (life member), Comparative Education Society India (life member, president 1979-1983), Indian Association Social Science Institutions (member executive committee 1985-1987).
Author: The Context of Education in Developing Societies, 1963. Elementary Education in India in Later Nineteenth Century, 1959. Editor: Sociological Perspectives in Education, 1985.
Editor Journal of Higher Education. Member educational advisory board Journal Social Change, since 1973, Journal Higher Education Policy, since 1979.